Determinants and Outcomes of Internalized and Social Stigma in the Workplace
This study examines the determinants and outcomes of Hepatitis C (HCV) stigma at workplace. Current literature on disease related stigma mainly focuses diseases like HIV, tuberculosis, epilepsy etc. however the present study specifically analyzes the workplace implications of HCV stigma.
The major antecedent analyzed in present study for internalized stigma are respectful treatment at workplace bullying, depression, stereotype endorsement and its outcomes are self-esteem and organizational cynicism and moderating role of self-efficacy is also analyzed. For social stigma the antecedents analyzed are attribution, social distance and specific stigmatizing and its outcome is empathic concern.
The data was collected from two samples for this study. The first sample consisted of HCV patients who are employed in different organizations for assessing internalized stigma. Initially 389 patients consented to give data however questionnaires were distributed to 357 employees out of which 277 questionnaires were received in which 29 questionnaires were incomplete hence finally 248 were used making response rate as 69.4%.
The second sample consisted of Coworkers of HCV patients for assessing social stigma, 577 coworkers consented however 458 questionnaires were returned out of which 421 completed questionnaires were finally used for analysis making response rate as 73%.
The results show that respectful treatment at workplace was positively associated with selfesteem and negatively associated with organizational cynicism. Workplace bullying, stereotype endorsement and social stigma shows significant negative relationship with self-esteem and positive relationship with internalized stigma and organizational cynicism except stereotype endorsement which shows insignificant relationship with organizational cynicism. Internalized stigma is also positively associated with organizational cynicism and negatively associated with self-esteem. Social distance and specific stigmatized beliefs show positive relationship with social stigma and negative relationship with empathic concern. Social stigma is also negatively related with empathic concern. Results show that attribution was insignificant associated with social stigma and empathic concern. The mediation analysis of internalized and social stigma also shows variety of findings. In case of moderation self-efficacy moderates the relationship between internalized stigma and self-esteem. Overall the results support the development of robust integrated model of internalized and social stigma. Theoretical and Practical implications of this study have also been discussed. Limitations and future direction of study are also explained.